THE INSCRIBED ROCK EDICT OF ASOKA (KALSI)
Location Geo- CoordinatesLat. 30 ° 32' N: Long 77° 53' E
NOTIFICATION NO.: UP-3119-M/367 :23-11-1909The site of Asoka's inscriptions at Kalsi the only place in north India where the great Mauryan emperor has inscribed the set of the fourteen rock edicts (res). The language of these edicts is Pali and the script Brahmi which reflect Asoka's humane approach in his internal administration, his fatherly concern for the moral and spiritual welfare of his subjects, and his commitment to non-violence and abandonment of warfare. For this Asoka proclaimed certain restrictive and prescriptive policies. The essence of the restrictive policies are restraint in worldly amusement, in gratuitous slaughter or non destruction of animals, in participating in despicable and useless beliefs and practices, and in glorification of one's own faith. That of prescriptive ones: self-control, purity of mind, gratitude, and firm attachment service to parents and ascetics, alms to brahmins and sramanas (ascetics), seemly behaviour towards friends, relatives, acquaintances, servants and slaves, concordance in religious matters.
To implement his policies Asoka put restraint in killing animals for the royal kitchen, established hospitals and planted medicinal herbs for both human beings and animals. He did not only within his empire but also in the neighbouring kingdoms: Chodas, Pamdiyas, Satiyaputras, Kerlaputras upto tambapamni (srilanka) in the south, and of hellenic kings in the west. He appointed dhamma mahamatra-s (overseers of the sacred law) for the promotion of righteous conduct, and replacing sound of trumpet signalling war used sound of dhamma (righteousness) whereby he claims to have gained dhamma vijay (victory by means of righteousness) even in the kingdoms of his contemporary hellenic kings, namely, antiochus (i) theos of Sriya, Ptolemy (ii) Philadelphia of Egypt, Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia, magas of Cyrene and Alexender of epirus. Thus, these inscriptions bear testimony to the facts that what Asoka preached also practiced. That is why he is acclaimed as one of the greatest emperors in the world.
SIVA TEMPLE, LAKHAMANDAL
Geo-Coordinates- Lat. 30° 43' 55" N: Long 78° 04' 42"E
NOTIFICATION NO & DATE-NO-3123-M/367/-/23/11/1909Dedicated to Lord Siva, this temple, popularly known as Lakeswara, was built between 12th -13th cent. A.D in Nagara style. However, fragmentary inscription of Chhaglesa and Prashasti of Princes Isvasra (circa 5th-6th centuries AD), revealed that the antiquity of the site goes much earlier then the existing temple. The Prashasti of Princes Isvasra, belonging to the Royal race of Singhpura, described the construction of a temple in honour of Siva, for the spiritual welfare of her deceased husband Chandragupta, the son of king Jalandhara. Remains of brick temple datable to 5th structures AD, below the ruined of stone temple in the complex is the earliest structural activity at the site.
Recent scientific clearance carried out by ASI revealed large number of structural remains in the temple premises including remains of flat roofed temples assignable to 5th -6th Cent. AD. which through new dimension in the history of the temple architecture of the Central Himalayan region.
MAHASU TEMPLE, HANOL
Geo- Coordinates- Lat. 30° 58' 16" N: Long 77° 55' 45" E
Notification No & Date;1669/1133 - M dated 27.12.1920The Mahasu temple at Hanol is considered to be sacred tirtha of the people living in a vast mountainous interior between the Jamuna and the Satluj. The cultic domain of Mahasu is, thus, not only confined to Jaunsar-Bawar, but it extends far beyond the adjoining area of Shimla District and Trans-Giri part of Sirmaur District in Himachal Pradesh and Dehradun and Uttarkashi District in Uttarakhand. There are four deities collectively known as the Mahasu Devtas i.e, Mahasu, Basika, Pawasi and Chalda. The first three abide in the temple while fourth i.e. Chalda is remain always moving in the Mahasu-domain. There are numerous legends associated with the origin of the Mahasu, however, it is generally believed that originally Mahasu belong to Kashmir and brought here by one Huna Bhat of Mandarath.
The Mahasu Devata temple is one of the rare examples of harmonious blend of stone and wooden to form one composite grand edifice. The sanctum-proper is a pure-rekha shikhara structure in stone of the classical type, however, the part of shikhara above the griva has very aesthetically been camouflaged on all sides with an elaborately treated wooden superstructure. The whole wooden structure is covered with a high-pitched slated pent-roof-ends and the projections of balcony are gracefully ornamented with dangling fringes and the pendant corner bells. Architecturally the original mulaprahsada is far more ancient and assignable to 9th-10th Cent. A.D. than the wooden contraption on the top. The mandapa and mukamandapa were added later and have undergone many changes in the subsequent periods.
ANCIENT SITE (JAGATGRAM), BADHWALA
Geo-Coordinates-Lat. 30° 28' 08"N: Long 77° 48' EThis ancient site was excavated by of Archaeological Survey of India between 1952 - 54, revealing remains of three fire alters and other associated material including inscribed bricks. Built in Syena Chiti form (Eagle shaped), these alters are believed to associate with the Ashvamedha sacrifices, perform by their authors. Sanskrit inscriptions in Brahmi characters of late third century AD, on bricks used in one of the three Jagatgram altars inform that king. Silavarman, alias Pona, of Yugasaila, who belonged to the Vrishagana gotra, performed four Asvamedha sacrifices here, indicating, perhaps, during the third century AD this western part of Central Himalaya was known as Yugasiala. In Pan Indian context such altars are extremely rare.
EXCAVATED SITE - VIRBHADRA RISHIKESH
Geo- Coordinates-N 30° 04'00" and E 78° 16'47"The site was excavated by of Archaeological Survey of India between 1973-75. The excavation brought to light the remains of a three cultural phases:
- The early phase (1st Century AD to circa 3rd century AD) represented by mud brick wall.
- The middle phase (circa 4th century to circa 5th century AD) is marked by a floor of brick bats and remains of a Saivaite temple.
- The late phase (circa 7th century to circa 8th century AD) is marked by some residential structures of burnt brick-bats.
KALINGA MONUMENTS (KARANPUR), SHASTRADHARA ROAD
Geo- Coordinates-Lat. 30° 22' 31" N: Long 77° 6' 21" E
Notification No & Date;UP-1645-M/1133:22-12-1920This memorial was built by victorious British Army in memories of their general 'Gilaspy' with other army men and their adversary Gorkha general 'Balbhadra Thapa' to pay tribute to their courage jointly
In 1814, the battle of Nalapani (Dehradun) took place between the Gorkha army under the command of Balbhadra Thapa, grandson of Amar Singh Thapa and the British army led by general Gilaspy, in which women and children joined hands in fighting along with the Gorkha, against the Britishers. The British general Gilaspy lost his life on 31st October 1814 with other fellow military men. Later on due to continued onslaught by the Britishers, the Gorkha general Balbhadra Thapa along with his army was forced to leave the fort of Nalapani.